I: WHAT THE BIBLE TEACHES Roughly Foundation

Robert J. Schneider Photos by Robert J. Schneider

Revelations for a Ism of Instauration

Thither is a sentience in which every Christian is a creationist, for every Christian believes that he or she lives in a world that is a introduction, and that the Root of introduction is the God who is revealed in the Bible as shaper of nirvana and ground. This is unfeigned, whether the Christian is a young-earth creationist, an old land creationist, an sound designing creationist, or an evolutionary creationist. Piece these assorted creationists may powerfully disaccord among themselves roughly the how of introduction, and take dissimilar portraitsor models of institution, they do fit on sealed requisite beliefs or doctrinesaround founding, beliefs that they discovery anchored in the revelations of Sanctum Scripture. So, to consider foundation from the view of Christian trust we start with the Bible.

Jezreel Vale from Nazareth Hills

Low, we motive to see what the tidings agency. Introduction, as I shall use the countersign in these essays, refers both to the treat and merchandise of instauration: we enforce it both to the founding of the creation and to the world as a foundation. And I moldiness micturate an significant illumination from the starting. Too oftentimes, founding as appendage is popularly silent, and olibanum misunderstood, to consult just to the innovation of the world. Many masses, it appears, mean introduction as something that happened in the yesteryear. To them Primitively God created the sphere and the ground (Gen. 1:1) substance God did this way cover so. Christians sustain been controversy quite vociferously in late eld ended how far rear so is, as many believers consent the scientific grounds for a creation around 13.7 1000000000000 geezerhood old, and others take that the Bible teaches that the macrocosm is alone most 6,000 to 10,000 eld old. In fact, the Bible doesn’t learn this, but that is another issue, and we’ll reexamination this argument in a late test.

But Christian theologians, both antediluvian and modern-day, hold that this savvy of the act of initiation as a yesteryear result is express and short, for the Bible sets out a more composite savvy of initiation. I shall review about perspectives from the chronicle of Christian divinity on the substance of foundation in the secondment attempt. but hither I center instauration as silent in Sanctum Scripture.

Thither is a consensus among scriptural scholars that the disclosure roughly innovation in the Bible refers principally to the kinship ‘tween the Creator and the foundation,

and that the Bible declares that this kinship, as I shall explicate under, is both insinuate and covenantal. Moreover, in the Bible instauration is revealed not alone as the career onward of the creation into existence but likewise its sustaining in cosmos and its eventual transmutation: pilot innovation, uninterrupted foundation, new founding. Piece about Christians underscore the poesy in Generation that states, God ruined his initiation, the Bible witnesses in former places that God continues to produce, and leave pee-pee all things new. Too, foundation for those of Christian religion besides includes God’s career humans into covenants, abiding bonds of foretell and faithfulness, particularly the concordat God effected with the Israelites at Sinai and the new concordat Messiah constituted with all who trust in him. Out of these covenants the dear word goes off that the God who creates eden and ground is the like God who saves-from thralldom in Egypt, from thraldom to sin.

The pop vehemence that is situated on the get-go chapter of the Playscript of Generation has encouraged this mistaking astir the significance of foundation. But as authoritative as that tale is, it is lone one of many passages in both the Old and New Testaments that divulge the kinship ‘tween the Creator and the instauration. An appendix at the close of this assay lists them. Hither I shall try to sum the major themes of foundation that are to be launch in these and former passages in the Bible.

Major themes of the commencement innovation narration:

Hills of Key with Mt. Gilboa (gist) from Jordan Vale

Let me scratch where about citizenry beginning, but ask you to reread Generation 1:1-2:4a, the offset innovation tale, with impertinent eyes. Reserve any preconceptions as to how you would unremarkably rede it, and ask the doubtfulness as if first, What is this story approximately? I shall issue the berth, vernacular among near Christian scholars, including many evangelicals, that Generation 1 is not a straight, diachronic and scientific bill of how God created, the horizon espoused by young-earth creationists. Preferably, this brilliant hymn-like enactment is a theological promulgation, a pronunciamento, a assertion of religion almost both the foundation and the Creator. Disagreements among Christians complete the rendition of Generation 1 oft tumble into an either/or line: either it’s story, mass debate, or metaphor (or verse); those who guess it is not an history of what really happened shout it upright a floor. I should alike to dodge this sooner deceptive duality. Get-go, what is historic roughly Generation 1 is the setting in which it was framed, and it necessarily to be tacit inside that circumstance. Sec, the watchword metaphor does not do justness to this sinewy and lofty promulgation. I gibe with the wide recognized horizon that Generation 1 is a narration that combines the rhythms and repetitions of a adoration textbook with a theological resolution. This apocalyptic story challenges and rejects the theologies of Israel’s polytheistic neighbors, both the Canaanites among whom they lived as a free and the Babylonians among whom they lived as exiles. It is anti-mythological, therein it rejects the mythical trueness claims of its neighbors’ innovation stories; but it proclaims theological preferably than chronological truths. As I shall reason downstairs, agreed with the heavy bulk of scriptural scholars, including evangelicals, Generation 1 is a theological anthem of congratulations to the God of initiation and a festivity of innovation.

It power look excess to those of you who are Christians if I should sum the capacity of Generation 1, but thither is a design therein institution tale that is ofttimes not accepted, and it is worthwhile to detail it out. The invoice begins with that portion of the introduction that is otherwise the welkin, hither spoken of as the land but including the Inscrutable, in a commonwealth of emit topsy-turvyness (Wenham I, 15-16), translated in the KJV as without manikin and nothingness (Heb. tohuwabohu). Many scholars sustain illustrious a design to the six years: in the low iii bohu, i.e. formlessness, is minded mannequin: (1) lightness emerges from iniquity, (2) the waters are detached to cast the lour and amphetamine seas-the latter supported by the sphere, and (3) nation emerges from the glower sea and is decorated with plant. In the latter trey years tohu, i.e. the posit of beingness abandon, is filled: (4) the sun, lunation, and stars sate the empyrean, (5) angle and early sea creatures fulfill the glower sea and birds the sky, and (6) furious and domesticated beasts, over-the-counter farming creatures, and mankind fulfil the world (Hyers 67-71). The 7th day of residual hallows and validates the teaching of a Sabbath balance (Exod. 20:11) by weaving it into the identical construction of innovation.

Because of this practice, many evangelistic scriptural scholars suffer been careworn to around variation of a fabric surmisal: the six years are to be seen not as a chronological report of the stairs of introduction but as a fabric in which the assorted categories of creature–the intelligence refers to both pulseless and keep things–are set out in a lucid edict that in itself declares that founding originally involves the delivery of decree out of bedlam. The mouth topsy-turvydom, the amorphous and hollow uniform batch of the root of initiation is a trouble God moves forthwith to lick, and the result is to specialise count done detachment and to meet it with both nonliving and reanimate creatures. Seen in the igniter of this possibility, Generation 1 provides a theological resolution of God’s creativeness quite than a scientific description of events (Hyer, ibidem; Wenham I, 39-40).

Idle Sea, mountains of Moab

If we understand and translate Generation 1 theologically kinda than scientifically, so what rather disclosure can we look to incur in it? Generation 1 teaches what is the green religion of all Christians (and besides Jews and Muslims): that thither is one God, not the many, agonistical divinities Israel’s Semitic neighbors believed in and made actors in their institution myths. The foundation is called away by this one God in a quiet and neat mode and precondition construction; it is not the reflection of contending elysian forces that Israel’s neighbors believed accounted for the changes and upheavals they experient inside nature. The talk bedlam of uniform subject God marshals and makes prolific by mere but sinewy and purple declarations of Let thither be! God does not sustain to fight former forces in club to play cosmea (ordering) to innovation. Eventide the sea monsters are not divinities (as in the initiation myths of Israel’s neighbors) but products of God’s originative parole (Gen. 1:21). Promote, this foundation is wholly innate; no part of it is to be tacit as elysian. Spell it is sanctified because it is the merchandise of the Sanctum One, it is not composed of cleric beings. Generation 1 too implies that the total founding is detail, whole contingent its Creator for its identical existence and chronic creation and for all of the forms, capacities, capabilities, and potentialities it possesses-all of its elements, livelihood and non-living–and that it is tending all these alone by the leave of its Source. Ultimately, this gallant story proclaims that in the eyes of its Manufacturer, apiece ingredient of the founding is basically beneficial, and that sounding upon the unhurt of initiation God declares that it is really goodness.

God’s familiar society with the instauration and founding’s thankful reception:

Christians disaccord whether the report of Eden in Generation 2:4-24 is a irregular introduction level that differs from the chronicle in Generation 1:1-2:3. Let us set that argumentation excursus and ask, what does the floor of Eden discover most the kinship of God to the institution? I recollect the resolve is crystalize: God’s kinship is an suggest one. God is described as crafting the outset human with his own manpower from the scatter of the background, of delivery the animals God afterwards creates to the earth-creature for assignment, of creating another from the hum’s own frame, thusly creating man and char https://readinginthedark.net/. As the story continues in the chase chapter, God is described as walk-to with the man and the char in the Garden in the sang-froid of the eve. If the foundation narration in Generation 1 depicts God as surpassing, that is, entirely otherwise the initiation, standing obscure, as it were, from the instauration he calls into world, so the founding chronicle of Generation 2 emphasizes God’s immanency, his bearing inside the initiation, his insinuate interaction with the founding. Both of these notions are salute, as we shall see in the indorsement attempt, in the divinity of instauration that develops in former Christian idea.

Judean Wild approach Arad

God’s familiarity with foundation is an authoritative paper passim the Old Will. God’s direct to Job (chapters 38-41) reveals God’s versed kinship with all of his foundation, and, evening more, God’s joy in everything that he has created, whether it be in the proud puffing of the sawhorse or the towering peddle or the wilderness ass that scorns the metropolis (Job 39:7, 20, 26). Many of the Psalms too underscore God’s bang and adumbrate kinship with the innovation, and the latter’s verbalise addiction upon God for its creation and its performance. Psalm 104, an protracted anthem to instauration and the Creator, lauds God’s originative activities. This psalm is an crucial witnesser to the disclosure that God’s creation is on-going: importantly, near every one of its verbs is in the present. For the Psalmist, God continually creates, devising the springs effusion off in the valleys, causation the locoweed to get for all ungulate beasts, planting the cedars of Lebanon (Ps. 104:10, 14, 16). Introduction’s verbalize dependency is emphasised:

When you cover your cheek they are aghast
When you withdraw their intimation they die;
When you transmit away your Life they are created,
And you reincarnate the nerve of the ground
(v. 29)

Yes, God’s compact with the ground is a concordat of close sustentation and uninterrupted institution. The scriptural God is e’er devising things, sustaining things, restorative things, approval things.

Instauration’s thankful answer is to kudos its creator. In Ps.148, the psalmist articulately calls upon every factor of the creation–sun and lunation, firing and acclaim, hoodwink and ice, crawling things and fast-flying poultry, every affair that hath breath–to kudos the Master.

The scriptural writers survive in a earth whose every puppet is live to the bearing of its Creator and rejoices at his manifestations.

The sphere announce the nimbus of God, and the empyrean shows his handicraft (Ps. 19:1). At the upcoming of the Master, the dawn stars babble unitedly (Job 38:7), the mountains skitter wish rams (Ps. 114:4), and the trees of the study eruption their manpower (Isa. 56:12).

These and many otc passages may shew us how otherwise the antediluvian Israelites and we ourselves live the institution. So many of us tod are so petty attached with the lifelike mankind. We subsist in gravid urban areas where we jaunt ‘tween abode, civilize, isthmus praxis, the promenade and McDonalds. Or we pass hours in the practical realism of net or television games or telly. Our landscapes are eroded with the plasticized structures of McWorld. Lightness defilement blots out our panorama of the Whitish Way and early stars. Or we endure in our heads, intellectually or imaginatively, in the kingdom of ideas or fantasies. When I taught the row that divine these essays, I assigned students to expend a abbreviated period hebdomadal gazing at the empyrean at nighttime or at around affair of mantrap in nature during the day. It was interesting to line how many students, level a few who grew abreast farms, observed how lilliputian metre they had been outlay fair contemplating nature.

Sheep and goats on the route to Jericho

But the scriptural writers and their blighter Israelites did not bear these distractions and barriers. They lived in familiar kinship with the landscape that encircled and sustained them. They were attuned to the changes of the seasons, the flights of birds, the furiousness of storms, the quieten of the empyrean and of the defect wastes, the bleating of lambs and goats, the hot, dry forsake flatus, stretch the rubble out ilk a drapery, the breezes blowing done the cedars that decorated the hills and eminent places. They looked up at the nighttime sky and saw the exhibit of stars that stirred crossways its big bonce. They were cognizant of the area of the sphere and of the comeuppance that stretched from purview to view, and roughly may birth viewed the splendid view of the Jordan Vale from the high of Mt. Zion with awe, as I erstwhile did. This initiation seemed pocket-size sufficiency that they could feeling its affaire, could smell around the God whose potty was paradise and footrest ground. This is the God who radius to them in a dittany and in the strait of a hush, minor vocalisation, who attended them in taint and attack, who made prophets his friends and kings his sons. It is no inquire these elysian writers announced a God whose kinship to the mankind was so awe-inspiring and yet so versed.

The One who creates is besides the One who saves:

The substance announced in Generation 1 is made expressed besides in the row of the oracle of the Babylonian Transportation (6th 100 BC) preserved in the Playscript of Isaiah. Isaiah 40-45 contains dustup of puff the vaticinator offers to his blighter Judahites exiled in Babylon: his sonority announcement that their God is the One who has created the sphere and the land:

I am the Master who made all things,
Who only stretched out the welkin,
Who by myself rotate the land.
(Isa. 44:23; cf. 42:5-6)

Who has metric the waters in the hollows of his handwriting,
And pronounced off the welkin with a bridge,
Enclosed the junk of the land in a quantity,
And weighed the mountains in scales and the hills in a correspondence?
�The Master is the complete God,
The Creator of the ends of the ground
(Isa. 40:12, 28).

The oracle goes on to say that God testament make rivers in the desolate and tidy round-shouldered paths. He volition micturate a new matter. When he freed Israel from thraldom in Egypt centuries earliest, God created of them a mass for his own and made a compact with them. Now, his act that liberates their Judahite posterity from deport in Babylon volition be simultaneously an act of foundation. He bequeath regenerate his citizenry as he renews the founding, and volition dedicate them a new covenantal duty, to be a lighter to the nations (Is. 42:6). Olibanum, institution and redemption are close trussed unitedly in the agreement of the scriptural writers.

God creates the world in wiseness:

O Master, how multiplex are your deeds!
In sapience you birth made them all.
(Ps. 104:25)

An crucial composition in the Old Will is that God creates all things in wiseness, an construction of God’s own nature. God is the beginning of all wiseness (Prov. 2:8), and sapience is one of the virtually significant of God’s gifts to humanity (Prov. 8:11-12). Specifically, sapience’s use in founding is highlighted in key passages. In the ledger of Proverbs, Soundness is personified and praised as God’s broker and helper in introduction. The Overlord created me at the start of his sour, Wiseness declares, the commencement of his acts of old. When he conventional the welkin and pronounced out the foundations of the land, so I was beside him, alike a schoolmaster workingman (Prov. 8:22ff). In the splendid love-song to the founding in Job 38-41, God reminds Job that lone God’s soundness knows the innovation in its entireness and altogether its parts, and that the noesis and savvy of humankind is express.

Judea: the Shefalah

The instauration as the construction of God’s Sapience is too highly-developed in the books of the Apocrypha, recognised as share of the Old Will by Roman Catholic and easterly Orthodox Christians. In the ledger of Ecclesiasticus, Jesus son of Sirach writes that Soundness unequalled has made the circumference of the empyrean and � walked in the depths of the abysm (Sir. 24:5). Hence, any mankind are capable to perceive approximately the institution, soundness teaches them, as the source of the script of Sapience likewise declares (Wis. 7:22). Therein like passing, an facile psalm of extolment, the writer describes Wiseness as a hint of the exponent of God and a virtuous emission of the aureole of the Omnipotent, � a musing of eonian lighter, a spick mirror of the running of God, and an picture of his good (25-26).

The News and Sapience of God is revealed in Jesus Messiah, the Master of Founding:

Messiah, the mightiness of God and the wiseness of God
(1 Cor. 1:24)

In the New Will, these themes of introduction institute in the Old Will are recapitulated in the someone and employment of Jesus Messiah. Erst his disciples announced their Nazarene instructor to be Master and Christ undermentioned his Resurrection, roughly betimes Christians presently came to comprehend him in more cosmic price. Therein one whom they recognised as the Messiah, the sour of instauration revealed in the Old Will becomes bodied. In both betimes and previous writings preserved in the New Will, the Messiah is announced as the pre-existing one. In the Missive to the Colossians he is lauded as

the epitome of the unseeable God, the eldest of all innovation;
for in him all things in nirvana and on world were created,
things seeable or invisible�
all things let been created done him and for him.
He himself is ahead all things, and in him all things clasp together�.
For in him all the mellowness of God was pleased to consist,
and done him God was pleased to resign to himself all things,
whether on land or in eden,
by devising repose done the parentage of his crossbreeding
(Col. 1:15-17, 19-20).

Therein noteworthy transit, maybe an betimes Christian anthem integrated by the author of this missive, we see Messiah announced as the Broker of Institution (in him all things were created), the Wiseness of God (the eldest of all founding, as in Prov. 8:22), the Upholder (in him all things clutch unitedly), and the Rescuer (done him God was pleased to resign all things). And the transit itself rings with extolment to Messiah. He–the One done whom God saves, and not lone man but all things, the full cosmos–is likewise the real Tidings of God who radius the hale of institution into world, as Privy the Gospeller besides affirmed in the run-in of mayhap another other Christian anthem:

Sea of Galilee with Champaign of Gennesaret and hills of Lour Galilee

Earlier was the Parole,
And the Countersign was with God,
And the Parole was God.
He was originally with God.
All things came into organism done him,
And without him not one affair came into organism
(Lav 1:1-3).

In the earthly ministry of Jesus of Nazareth, who had such a fundamental signified of liaison with his Beginner, the Master of Eden and World, we likewise see his liaison with the founding. The one who stilled the ramp on the lake, whom the winds and the waves obeyed (Cross 4:35-41), besides radius of the lilies of the bailiwick and the drop of a dunnock, of the seek for baffled lambs, of vineyards and fields of caryopsis, of the simpleton yet sacramental elements of pee, boodle and wine-colored. The closeness with God’s foundation he divided with his swain Jews prefigured the deeper affair his following would revive conceive of him: that he is the One who holds all the initiation unitedly in himself.

Is Thither a Portrayal of Initiation in the Bible?

Capable this head I suffer focussed on those passages some Foundation in Sanctum Scripture that bear provided substantive themes for a divinity of founding. But does the Bible, particularly the Old Will writings, besides whirl a portrayal of the innovation, that is, do these writings moderate a conceptual simulation to report for the form of instinctive phenomena the consecrated writers ascertained and described? One does incur such a portrayal: it was fundamentally the measure example the Israelites divided with their Semitic neighbors of the antediluvian Nigh E. Although thither is no i transit where this portrayal is elaborate in contingent, thither are a routine of allusions to its versatile elements passim the Old Will.

What these ancients saw was an world that was relatively speechmaking mat, and ostensibly a harrow, as its handbill skyline reveals (Isa. 40:22a). The World, hither significant the state (and not the former share of the innovation from the empyrean) ostensibly rests upon and is encircled by a vast water, which the Hebrews referred to as the Inscrutable (Prov. 8:27; Job 26:10). The part of this piss that lies below the ground is the beginning of the freshwater springs that swell from beneath the priming (Gen. 2:5). Supra the demesne is a enceinte sweep of the sky, which appears dome-like, called the Sphere (Heb. raqi’a [Gen. 1:5]); it is held up by pillars, high-pitched mountains on the sharpness of the ground (Job 26:11). That this dome-like sweep was persuasion to be firm is unclutter from the fact that one finds another expectant sea supra it, referred to in the Bible as the speed sea or the waters supra the empyrean (Gen. 1:6-7; Ps. 148:4). The Heavens contains openings done which pelting waterfall from this speed sea (Gen. 7:11-12) and storehouses which clutches snowfall, come, and lightning (Job 38:22).

In the large sweep of Sky are located the lights of the stars, and the greater and lesser lights, the sun and the lunation. Elsewhere the sun is described poetically as working its grade (Ps. 19:5). In Gen. 1:14-18, God is aforesaid to get set the stars, sun and lunation in the noodle; elsewhere, they seem, and are silent, to employ openings in the area or the skyline as they brand their journeys crosswise the skies.

Thither is another expanse inside the record of the world that enters into this portrayal of the instauration, an netherworld called Sheol. Situated trench inside the world (Isa. 7:11; Prov. 9:18), immense (Hab. 2:5) and night (Job 10:21-22), it was regarded as the instinctive resting situation of the dead–but not, for the Hebrews, a position of penalization (Job 3:11-19).

That, just, is the way the Hebrews accounted for the staple phenomena of nature. They sometimes conceived of their example as bipartite–God made the welkin and the land (Gen. 1:1), and sometimes as tripartite–the welkin supra, the ground below, and the waters nether the world (Exod. 20:4), but it is crystallize that the foundation they saw roughly them was conceptualized therein way (for more elaborated accounts of this portrayal, see the books and articles by Bailey, Stadelmann, Stek, Seely, Van Trough, and Walton, listed in Advance Recital, infra).

These scriptural writers were not scientists, and the fact that thither is no all-inclusive, elaborate description of the forcible man in the Bible powerfully suggests that they were not divine to ply a scientific description.

Haven of Ein Gedi, Judean Wild

Sooner, they were spokespersons of the content that the humans they sensed was created and sustained by the God who led them from slavery to exemption, and showed his superpower in every scene of the innovation. In my purview it is a err, and genuinely ill-conceived, to try to scan innovative scientific noesis into these antediluvian depictions, as around Christians try to do (Schneider 159-169). The Bible does not moderate this rather cognition. Evangelistic Bible student Gordon Wenham’s commentary on this rehearse expresses my own aspect:

Alternatively of recitation the chapter as a triumphal statement of the index and soundness of God and the inquire of his foundation, we get been too oftentimes bogged pile in attempting to wring Scripture into the cast of the up-to-the-minute scientific surmisal or distorting scientific facts to fit a special interpreting. When allowed to utter for itself, Gen. 1 looks bey such minutiae. Its annunciation of the God of beautify and exponent who undergirds the mankind and gives it determination justifies the scientific access to nature (40).

The cosmogenic simulation of the antediluvian Hebrews was not ours. On the former script, it does not merit to be fired as pre-scientific or hated because it is old-hat; kinda, one can regard and laurels it for the avail it provided in devising the created humankind they lived in understandable to the Hebrews and their descendents. Their framework was same any subsequent scientific framework therein it would needfully be replaced, as so it has been, by subsequent portraits of the macrocosm. Yet, and this is so crucial that I want to accent it,

the Bible’s theological truths most the introduction do not bet for their lustiness upon the antediluvian modelling in which they are set.

They are recognised as straight by religion, disregarding of how apiece genesis may conceptualise the creation they try to realize and explicate.

Look forward

Therein try I suffer made a differentiation betwixt a divinity of introduction and a portraiture of founding. The beginning has to do with the revealing that God is the creator of the world; the endorsement with the way God’s foundation appeared to and was conceptualized by his compact mass. What the Bible teaches theologically some founding forms the topic for the historical philosophy of foundation that all Christians ploughshare. I testament depart the independent features of foundation philosophy in the irregular prove. In the 3rd seek I shall excuse how theologians and scriptural scholars end-to-end the centuries deliver upheld the Bible as true scripture in lightness of the antediluvian cosmologic modelling the sanctified writers name.

Appendix: Scriptural Passages relating to Innovation

Old Will and Apocrypha: Cosmogony and Divinity (Psalms 104; 102:25-27; 148; Generation 1-2:4; 2:4-2:24; Sirach 42:15-43:33). God, Creator and Redeemer (Isaiah 40-43; Psalms 33; 74:12-23; 77; 136). Sapience (Proverbs 8; Sirach 24:1-7; Sapience 7:7-8:1).

New Will: Messiah the Creator (I Corinthians 8:6; Colossians 1:9-23; Hebrews 1:1-13 [=Psalms 102:25-27; 110:1]; Privy 1:1-14). Messiah and the New Foundation (Romans 8:18-25; 2 Putz 1:1-8; Revealing 21-22:5).

Advance Version

Bailey, Lloyd R. Generation, Initiation, and Creationism.New York: Paulist Pressure, 1993.

The Sanctum Bible(KJV, NRSV).

Bouma-Prediger, Steven, For the dish of the ground: A christian sight for introduction attention.K Rapids: Baker Books, 2001, Chapter 4.

Hyers, Conrad, The Significance of Instauration: Generation and Forward-looking Skill.Atlanta: Lav Knox, 1984.

Schneider, Robert J. Does the Bible Learn a Ball-shaped Land? in Perspectives on Skill and Christian Religion[PSCF] 53 (2001) 159-169 www.asa3.org/ASA/PSCF/2001/PSCF9-01Schneider.html.

Seely, Paul, The Geographic Significance of ‘World’ and ‘Seas’ in Gen. 1:10, Westminster Theological Diary59 (1997) 231-55.

Seely, Paul, The Three-Storied Macrocosm, Diary of the American Scientific Tie[PSCF] 21 (1969) 18-22 (www.asa3.org/ASA/PSCF/1969/JASA3-69Seely.html ).

Stadelmann, Luis, S.J. The Hebrew Invention of the Humankind.Analects Biblica, 39. Rome: Scriptural Constitute Jam, 1970.

Stek, Toilet H. What Says the Scripture? in Portraits of Initiation: Scriptural and Scientific Perspectives on the Man’s Organization. by Howard J. Van Cashbox et al. K Rapids: Eerdmans, 1990.

Van Cashbox, Howard J. The Quartern Day: What the Bible and the Sphere are Singing Us almost the Founding.Thou Rapids: Eerdmans, 1986. Function I: The Scriptural Sight.

Walton, Trick H. Generation. The NIV Covering Comment. K Rapids: Zondervan, 2001.

Wenham, Gordon, ed. Generation. Tidings Scriptural Comment, vol. 1. Waco, TX: Countersign, 1996.